What’s Sit Pretty?


Sit Pretty is an internet T- Shirt Company that is Christian based. They sell shirts that empower people with sickle cell anemia and to young girls and women. The company wants to give a positive representation to girls in order to show that they can showcase their beauty in a positive way. I will be doing my capstone project on this company. The project will consist of a Story Reference Book, Situation Analysis, Market Analysis, Goals and Objectives, and Target Audience/ Analysis. 

According to Wolf ( Building Imaginary Worlds), A narrative often plays in a world’s first appearance. Marketers oftentimes sell a story and that story sells the product. A successful world makes great use of words, images, sounds, and interactions. This project has a combination of all of these characteristics. ( pg. 247-248)

1. Story Reference Book-  Plot: Little Suzie Q is bullied at school for not having long hair and wearing plain clothes, a teacher talks to her one day and gives her the t- shirt. The next day Suzie wears the shirt to school and all the children admire her shirt and she makes new friends. Suzie gains new confidence and even styles her hair a different way to match the shirt, even when Suzie isn’t wearing the shirt, she maintains the same confidence and she gets other shirts like the #SitPretty shirts because she feels empowered and stylish. When she sees another girl being bullied, Suzie comes to the girls defense and also gives her a t- shirt.

Another little girl with sickle cell is in and out of the hospital and she is tired of seeing her hospital gown, she wants a t-shirt that will make her feel beautiful so her mom buys her a #SitPretty T-shirt and she loves the woman with the mirror on it, when she wears the shirt she walks around more and practices her model walk and she feels confident.

The t- shirt company wants to produce quality t-shirts that show beauty and what the children call ( swag). When people wear the t-shirts, they need to feel empowered and feel that they do not have to degrade themselves or conform to societal pressures in order to feel and be beautiful. Also, when sickle cell patients wear the shirts, they need to feel empowered and that they are beautiful and can be a fighter and successfully  live and battle through their autoimmune disease.

Tone: The tone is uplifting and everything involving beauty, fashion and confidence.

Peculiarities of the World: strictly an internet business, a one person business, 

Characters: This small company consists of two people. There are two people in this narrative, Doug ( now deceased from sickle cell anemia) and Marsha. These people are the founders of the t-shirt company. Other characters are future customers such as girls the age of 9 to 18 ( ones like Suzie Q at school ), their parents and guardians, and sickle cell patients ( the girl at the hospital).

2. Situation Analysis-    Product Situation: Sit Pretty is a small internet T- Shirt company that is about to be revived. The company needs more exposure from Instagram, Website and Print Ads. The story about its positive beauty and sickle cell anemia needs to be fully told on these platforms.

Product distribution- the t- shirts are shipped to the buyers 

if #SitPretty ever goes to stores, that will be another form of distribution

Product advertisement- it can be advertised through word of mouth, the various organizations, Instagram, and its future website

Environmental : none

Strengths: it reaches younger audiences and trendsetters

Weaknesses: it is a new business

Opportunities: it can reach audiences worldwide because it is on the web

Threats: the competition such as Sevenly. Sevenly sells shirts and other items and gives the proceeds to different charities. In order to get Sevenly’s customers I would have to tell a story of generosity and work more with sickle cell organizations. Sevenly reaches out to a Christian audience.  My brand would be differentiated because it has a dual component to its story, it’s about, fashion & style, the upliftment of women and girls and people with sickle cell.

Salience: Customers being happy with the product

3.  Target Audience/ Analysis-  The market of my client are girls between the ages of 9 to 18. They also want to expand to the college group and the sorority group ( people who are in AKA, Delta, and Zetas).  Young Millenials are in the age bracket of 18-29 and it is a small portion of Sit Pretty’s target market.

According to Content Marketing Manager Maris Cohen, millennials are ” social media savants, selfie experts, experience seekers, value hunters, convenience junkies, savvy shoppers, and authentic.” . Maris states that they want to be treated as individuals and not generalized. After all, everybody is different and do not buy the same things or have the same interests. Millenials are estimated to spend $1.4 trillion annually by 2020 .  For the case of this study the millenials can be segmented from ages 18 to 24 ( college age). Age has a lot to do with spending habits and behaviors. According to CivicScience, most younger millenials are single and have never been married, fewer are married compared to older millenials and fewer have parented a child.

In Maris’s study she stated that

“Younger Millennials are more optimistic about the state of our economy. They’re less likely than their older counterparts to think Donald Trump would make a good president, and more likely to see the new “Star Wars” movie. Younger Millennials are more likely to applaud Bernie Sanders’ performance in the first Democratic debate. And they eat granola with a higher frequency than their elder Millennial brethren.”

1. NPD studied 8,766 Millennials and found that they specialize in beauty both online and offline. They are more likely to visit special beauty retailers when they need something like mascara.

2. Young Millennials shop more specialty apparel 

This chart from the NPD studies show how well these specialty stores have done by catering to the younger Millennial generation. They spend lower in children based stores than stores geared toward them and older audiences. Stores like North Face and Lululemon have had incredible sales from ages 18 to 34 because they sold clothing items that anyone can wear. Although the target market is mostly geared towards little girls, some millennials are in that target market group and they can be major buyers if the product appears neutral and not childlike.

In order to appeal to much younger audiences, t- shirts can be specifically designed for them in fun colors. Since Millenials shop specialty stores, this means success for #SitPretty because it is a specialty store that caters to their needs.

3. Younger Millenials are Sportier- 

They tend to own more active wear and shop at more sports good stores

4. Younger Millenials Spend Less on Accesories

Sit Pretty can target this audience because it is a specialty shop that is about the beauty of girls and it is dedicated to a special cause.

Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing

Sandra L. Calvert explained that children have great influence in what their parents buy and there has been numerous media outlets dedicated specifically to children.  This article discussed stealth advertising ( hiding its agenda), advertising that doesn’t look like advertising. In this type of advertising, characters are used or people are doing everyday things in the advertisement but the attention is still drawn to the product. This type of approach can be used for the Instagram page for Sit Pretty.

The Economy of Women

The Harvard Business Review page discusses how women control $20 trillion dollars in consumer spending world wide. This includes moms, aunties, grandmothers, students and anyone that is buying Sit Pretty t-shirts. According to the women speak world wide early results, young women are starting to make more than men and they do make more than men in certain states. The future is bright for women. Since the company is for women, the potential for positively meeting the needs of women an catering to them are great.


Gen Z report

Gen Z report

According to Business Insider , this is how to connect with the teenagers ( a huge part of the market) (13-18). The cause of sickle cell and the fashion aspect of the company has a lot of untapped potential with this age group. The fashionable interactions on the three different media platforms and the different ways people can be empowered through this cause will attract these desired customers.

Marketing to Tweens 

According to the research, the media habits of children ages 8 to 12 include TV, radio, video games, and magazines. Tweens are children who want to be teenagers but are not old enough yet. The Sit Pretty company is targeted towards this group up until high school, and the company also wants to target the college aged group and girls in sororities.

The article states that tweens spend their money on:
o 82% on video games, music, movies, books, videos/DVDs, virtual worlds, etc.
o 57% on food/beverages.
o 42% on toys (games/dolls/collectibles)
o 40% on clothing/shoes/accessories

Consumers with Sickle Cell 

According to the CDC

It is estimated that:

  • SCD affects approximately 100,000 Americans.
  • SCD occurs among about 1 out of every 365 Black or African-American births.
  • SCD occurs among about 1 out of every 16,300 Hispanic-American births.
  • About 1 in 13 Black or African-American babies is born with sickle cell trait (SCT).


The Sit Pretty company can be a community for people with that disease and to empower them.


#SitPretty Insights: More Women are reached, so the target audience is fulfilled by gender

4. Market Analysis 

Socio- economic Information: The socio- economic group that buys these competitor’s shirts and that #SitPretty is trying to reach is the middle class whose occupation include managerial, administrative, and professional positions, Lower middle class people whose positions include junior managers, clerical, professional, and skilled manual labor.

The Competition 

1.Teespring is a t shirt company that mostly caters to women & men but mostly women. The target audience is  college students that are politically and socially,  aware go to class, have a style that is comfortable yet stylish, and use texting language

According to Stateuniversity.com college students spend 5 billion a year on clothes and shoes. They spend the most on food and beverages and entertainment . Full time students represent over 60 million dollars in buying power.

Customink.com is a t- shirt company that allows women to choose their style of t-shirts and hoodies and they can design it online. Their target audience is adult women from young adults to middle aged and working women. They cater to men too but not as much as women. They also cater to women who may have jobs that allow them to be creative, have creative gear and team shirts.

Sevenly is a t- shirt company that is similar to #SitPretty, they take proceeds from their t- shirt company and donate it to charitable causes. Their target audience is the Christian audience and people who love giving back. According to Mashable, Sevenly became the winner of America’s Most Social Small Business.

H&M- Image result for h&m target market

Sit Pretty wants to get on this level in sales or past it

Sevenly is a brand that is more similar to #SitPretty.


Shopping Trends  

According to Instyle, There are a couple trends to look forward to. Teespring mastered the graphic t design and Sevenly uses the vintage design. Since #SitPretty doesn’t have that many designs and it says a message it fits into the vintage category that instyle talks about. The top 4 t-shirt designs/ trends that people are buying are the

  1. Graphic t
  2. Striped t
  3. Classic
  4. Vintage

According to what Laurie Russo said in her article, Mastering Marketing, in order to get your audience to consume your content, it has to be of substance, meaningful and have editorial quality. #SitPretty fits these qualities because its message to young girls and people with sickle cell is empowering and the duality of the stories in one organization makes the company different and meaningful. These other companies, especially Sevenly, fit this criteria which is why they could be strong competition.

Demographics: According to the previous information from the CDC, African Americans are more likely to get sickle cell. The sororities that the owner is trying to reach is also black sororities. Although we are trying to reach all races and ethnicities, mostly black women and girls may be reached or drawn to the product the most.

5. Goals and Objectives

Goal 1- To get more exposure

* Objective 1- Get exposure in the next three months by  creating content via Instagram, Flyers and a Website

* Objective 2- Recruit models for the Instagram page

* Objective 3- Get exposure through word of mouth via events and through the usage of hash tags in the next three months

Goal 2- To better connect the sickle cell story with the story of positivity for girls

* Objective 1- Connect more with the sickle cell community within the next three months by reaching out to various organizations ( ex: the sickle cell organization in Atlanta, the national sickle cell research center)

* Objective 2- Get testimonials from sickle cell survivors and get testimonials from girls who have had low self esteem or girls that have positive body and beauty images, get testimonials from customers about how they like the product.

* Objective 3- post uplifting content about body positivity/ what #sitpretty stands for, and uplifting content about sickle cell that requires customers to interact and talk

This transmedia storytelling campaign is composed of 3 narrative threads


Copy of Black Friday Sale Flyer Template (1)


A New Design

Market Research for Flyers

#SitPretty plans to reach out to Sickle Cell organizations by going to their events, speaking and handing out t- shirts and flyers. This can open up other doors for #SitPretty to even sell t- shirts at these organizations and also hand out flyers.

According to Scientific American, we read more intensively on paper than we do on screens.  With flyers, customers have a better chance of paying attention to your message. Opportunity Marketing backs my strategy of handing out flyers to where the target audience will be. They state that your flyer has to be seen at the right places.

Opportunity Marketing states that flyers are ideal when done right because using various approaches increases visibility.  Capturing offline customers can be vital to business.  Also, obstacles can get in the way that stops customers from accessing the online channels like

  • Social feed algorithms diluting the audience
  • Slow internet connections
  • Scrolling past information without fully processing it

Flyers can facilitate word of mouth marketing. George Silverman talks about word of mouth marketing in his book The Secrets of Word of Mouth Marketing. Customers want to talk to their friends and family and trusted advisers instead of listening to marketers. Listening and granting what the customers want, through what they say to others is a crucial way to increase word of mouth. ” Indirect communication through word of mouth has now moved from highly desirable to crucial- the central tool of marketing.”

Flyers are the tools to give ” overwhelmed , split-focused, multi- tasking ” people the relief they need. They can use the simplicity of the flyer to spread the word of the business to others.


YourMarketingUniversity gives 7 tips on how to market flyers.

  1. Keep it simple and not cluttered
  2. Use customer testimonials on your flyers
  3. Don’t go crazy with your design
  4. Use full color if at all possible
  5. Don’t run cheap photo copies
  6. Be sure to include a coupon or discount
  7. Make it easy for them to find you


Instagram Approach


According to the article 7 Social Media Psychology Studies That Will Make Your Marketing Smarter,  Emotions shared online are contagious ( especially happiness). 

Strategy: My strategy for the Instagram page was to post encouraging and inspiring quotes and content that would have the audience interacting. The study backs up this strategy because the positive message correlates to the brand and it will the positivity will be infectious and cause customers to buy and/ or interact with the brand.

Getting social feedback leads to a greater sense of belonging.

Strategy: Posting messages that relate to little girls or sickle cell and getting the consumers to interact through those messages encourages a community. Working with sickle cell organizations or even asking for audience feedback creates a space where the consumers can feel comfortable to talk.

Customers are willing to become brand advocates

According to the user testing blog, consumers become brand advocates and my suggestion of posting a customer in their #SitPretty shirts proves this marketing research right.

The Keyhole website calls this Fan- Photos. They encourage the sharing of industry related content.

Strategy: Hashtags

According to research by Heather A. Antoine in her article Hashtagging: What you need to know about Hashtags as trademarks , Hashtag litigation, the FTC, Viral Campaigns and More. Hashtags facilitate categorization and searching on social media. They are descriptive devices and some hashtags can be trademarked today. When I was revamping the #SitPretty Instagram page, Instagram asked if I could use the hashtag to be attached to the brand, so when people typed the hashtag they could find the page.

best times to post on instagram

According to Sprout Social. Thursdays and Fridays are the best days to post content. The most popular times are  5 a.m, 11 a.m and 3-4 in the afternoon, Wednesdays at 3 p.m and Friday at 5 a.m. Thursday is the best day to post on Instagram.

Instagram says that its users spend more than 32 min on the app. 

The Later blog site stated that it is best to post in the time zone that most of your followers are from. Followers can be analyzed on Instagram insights when you have a business page.









Website approach

Strategy: Testimonials

According to the Top Seven Overlooked Benefits of Testimony  , by Forbes


  1. Increase Customer Loyalty
  2.  It’s Good Practice for Referrals
  3. Natural Language Pulled Directly from Customers- ( put the customer’s testimonial in their words)
  4. Learning Opportunities- you can learn from customer testimonials and feedbacks
  5. Staff Appreciation
  6. Sharability – testimonials are easy to share on other platforms
  7. Search Engine Optimization ( SEO)- the more testimonials you publicize the better your search results


Organization and Business Partnerships

According to the BRQ Business Research Quarterly, cross sector partnerships is a powerful vehicle for implementing corporate social responsibility, and for achieving social and economic missions.

The sickle cell cause is close to the owner of #SitPretty, a mutually beneficial partnership between a sickle cell organization and the store would be ideal to put more money in the research and to encourage people with sickle cell and they can in turn buy the product.





Transmedia replacing face to face communication?

James Pamment wrote an article called, Digital diplomacy as transmedia engagement: Aligning theories of participatory culture with international advocacy campaigns. The whole article focuses on applying transmedia storytelling and theories to engagement and surveillance in the case study of the Campaign to End Sexual Violence in Conflict. The article discussed ways to investigate how diplomatic advocacy campaigns cope with problems such as media repertoires, co- created content, collective intelligence, digital convergence, and stakeholder management ( pg. 1). Participatory culture was mentioned often as something that is relevant to the case and transmedia as a whole.  In order to delve deeper into this article, digital diplomacy has to be defined. According to Pamment, diplomacy is representation ( pg. 2), so digital diplomacy would be digital representation. Pamment states that, ” diplomacy plays a role in monitoring and international political advocacy, directing international broadcasting channels, and facilitating international exchange. Transmedia, surveillance, engagement, participatory culture, socialized participants, and behavior were frequently used terms in the article. Pamment’s arguments were

1.  Public diplomacy emphasizes the role of listening, particularly in terms of polling and discrete inquires with influencers, before a communicative campaign is conducted. The communicative practices include the continual, real time monitoring of stakeholders on the basis that the digital campaign assets are transparent and shared, while simultaneously providing the tools for monitoring producers/consumers ( pg. 5)

2. The use of social media must be understood in terms of a demand for actors to internalize and produce norms of behavior with elements of surveillance integral to that position ( pg. 5) 

3. Transmedia engagement is viable for rethinking the rule of media campaigns in diplomatic influence, particularly around the notions of stakeholder management and message discipline. ( pg.5) 

Analysis of Pamment’s Points and Counter Argument

“To sustain millennial loyalty to their brands, companies must engage millennials individually and in small groups through direct, two way communications”


  1. Listening and monitoring is important in order to engage audiences and get a response, however listening in order to understand and foster face to face relationships is more vital. Nowadays, the world is getting more digital that companies are losing touch with face to face interaction(s) with their customers. Using these same skills in order to go about a face to face approach with campaigns would bring back the reality part of transmedia. Instead of monitoring digital campaigns, face to face methods can be monitored and companies can come up with ways that they can get these same methods across to consumers by physically making them interact with the product. Giving consumers incentive to be active about the product outside of their screens would be more memorable to them. According to Face to Face marketing, businesses can take this method of polling and do face to face marketing by doing in store visits,  sales events, product demos, and event attendance.
  2.  Our behavior is being changed by transmedia. Some people can go an entire day with little to no face to face interaction with others.  The way we have been resocialized is responsible for this known fact. Socializing behavior  has been used in this article quite a bit. Technology is re-socializing people in different ways. This re-socialization has changed the ways people tell stories. Participatory culture is an excellent example of this. We have been socialized to participate with businesses online that tells stories that we can buy into. We can take these stories and make our own or participate by sharing, liking, tagging and recirculating. Businesses are now trying to bring back or continue to include face to face interactions  so that their businesses are not lacking that important aspect. Miscommunication happens all the time, especially in transmedia storytelling so face to face communication clears up confusion. Using videos’s are a great substitute because the customer can put a face with the message.    According to the Australian Institute of Business, face to face communication fosters engagement and innovation.  This relates to the second half of his argument that talks about surveillance. Technology has been about sharing or knowing people’s thoughts and what they are doing. We have been socialized through technology to be connected in deeper ways and always be in the know, so businesses and companies have used that to their advantage. Although these methods foster engagement, nothing beats face to face communication which is the best way to foster engagement. Methods of including face to face communication helps companies, so that their transmedia story is not all digital, face to face diversifies transmedia. Examples of this are tradeshows, product launches, and different engaging events.
  3. Transmedia is highly influential. Focusing on the physical aspects of transmedia has a lasting impact and resonates with consumers more, especially with campaigns, stakeholder management and message discipline.

The Campaign to End Sexual Violence in Conflict ( focused on in the article) can greatly benefit from more face to face interaction. There can be events where survivors or speakers come and talk to people, there can be benefit concerts, there can even be promotional speeches of the campaign and more events connected to being around real people.

Overall, face to face communication is important because customers can be won over by personal touch, the reading of body language, effectively getting your message across without the hassle that technology brings,  and physical display of passion. Consumers see all of that through face to face communication and that transfers to digital.


” Face to face marketing will remain as the primary marketing model for most businesses for years to come

–  Anurag Madaan ( Co-founder and CEO at boothconstructions.com)

Bridging Media Making & Marketing- Harness Your Inner Marketing

Image result for transmedia marketing zeiser

What is Transmedia ?

According to Zeiser in her book Transmedia MarketingTransmedia is storytelling across multiple forms of media, with each element making distinctive contributions to a user’s understanding of the story universe, including where user actions affect the experience across multiple platforms ( pg.9) In her first chapter, she discussed how we are in a DIY society, where people can be producers and participators of media. Audiences can enjoy a transmedia story as well as make their own. An example she had of this was Dane Boedingheimer. He made the Annoying Orange videos as a teenager. The YouTube series quickly became a transmedia story when it got adapted to shows, games, toys etc. There are a lot of internet sensations that started out as regular people, that crossed over to multiple platforms such as Don’t Jealous Me,Emmanuel and Phillip Hudson, and Blame it on Kway

How Does it Relate to Marketing?

Besides word of mouth marketing and commercials, technology and the art of transmedia has been used to market products. According to Zeiser, Transmedia marketing is a range of original content created around one product with a goal of driving audience engagement around the product, marketing elements become content channels in themselves.

Products have been turned into stories on multiple mediums in order to engage and relate to consumers. The Goldfish snack commercials usually show the the fishes talking and marketing themselves. The Pepperidge farm company also made a game that you can play with the snacks where you put the goldfish snacks in cups and you grab a spoon and scoop up the snacks using no hands. The company encouraged participants to tell them fun ways that they play the game in order to win a one hundred dollars visa gift card. Twitter was used as the medium for this and the instructions were to use the hashtag #Sweepstakesentry. The narrative that goldfish sells is that their snacks are fun and friendly, their slogan, the snack that smiles back greatly portrays this narrative.

“The goal of telling the story across multiple platforms is to serve the audience and create superfans ( pg. 21)”. The ways in which companies interact with customers through these stories make customers superfans.

Zeiser used the example of the minions in Despicable me.  The games, commercials and products that the minions were in before the launch of the movie told a story that the audience was interested in. This type of transmedia involvement made the movie a success and it grossed $300 million in the box office.

Temple’s Digital Marketing Sector listed The Hunger Games and Doritos as successful Transmedia Marketing.

“the series, the brand was developing a storytelling strategy. This strategy consisted of social media marketing campaigns, brand/designer partnerships, and fan participation. More specifically, the brand connected with its audience across its multiple social media channels (each showcasing a different theme of the plot) and evoked emotion in by promoting fan challenges and user generated content. The Hunger Games film series because successful in its Transmedia marketing campaign by having immersed its audience into the series and blended the reality of their lives into the fictional setting of the movie.

Doritos ran a commercial contest for its fans to submit a commercial for a chance to win one million dollars. Doritos used this campaign across all of its social media channels as a way to increase audience engagement on a two-way street. Although the company decided to end the contest campaign, they are still active in storytelling across its multiple social media channels and through other fan participation efforts and user-generated content.

For a brand to successfully gain and maintain momentum in its industry, it must entice its audience on every channel of media by storytelling and interacting with fans.”

The Four P’s of Marketing

In order to harness your inner marketer, the four P’s of marketing are concepts that must be grasped. The four P’s are

Product- know the appropriateness of your product for its market

Price- assess the proper value/ cost

Place-  where and when the product will be available for audiences

Promotion- provide key information to audiences


Image result for four p's of marketing

This can be done in transmedia because companies make a story out of their product and point them to the price, the place that the product is available is usually their website or whatever platform(s) are being used, and the promotional aspect is the information needed to draw the consumers in. Thinking outside of the box is important to marketing success

An example of a transmedia product that uses the four P’s is Dorito’s. Their new flavor launch ( Blaze) and Super Bowl commercial sold their consumers. The key information that they provided in the commercial was the hashtag #spitfire. The hashtag allows the company to further talk about the product and find out how appropriate it is for the market. The place to get the product is in stores, however the promotion of the product is online and in commercials.

To know more about Zeiser’s stance on transmedia, the above topics are covered in her book Transmedia Marketing . The overall definition of transmedia and the introduction to DIY culture was covered in chapter one of Zeiser’s book Transmedia. Relating transmedia to marketing was covered in chapter two and using transmedia in the marketing concept ( The Four P’s) was covered in chapter three.

Imaginary Worlds Re-enchantments Modernity

” Modernity was widely associated with progress toward the rational away from the supernatural, and efforts by believers to impart the veneer of scientific respectability to the supernatural were frequently greeted with skepticism if not outright disdain ( pg. 107).”

Image result for sherlock holmes

Sherlock Holmes & Watson. These are Doyle’s Characters


Saler discusses many abstract ideas and secondary worlds in his book As If. Imagination and enchantment have a big role in the creation of secondary worlds. Chapter 3 of his book discusses Conan Doyle’s  book, Sherlock Holmes. His characters were highly regarded and esteemed as the perfect combination between rationality and enchantment. Chapter 5 focused on Tolkien and how he views imaginary worlds through his book, Fairy Stories, and his explanation of Lord of the Rings. Although these chapters discussed different things, they connected in two ways.

Image result for tolkien fairy stories

Most of Tolkien’s theories are in this book

Holmes & Tolkien’s Definition of  Secondary Worlds

Doyle was into spirituality. People did not accept his version of spirituality because he promoted a world that was too far removed from the present. People love other worlds and want to be enchanted, however it has to have the perfect balance between reality and enchantment. Although The Sherlock Holmes stories were fictional ( and it was known to be fictional), the characters were regarded as real people because the story did an excellent job of realistically enchanting the reader. Sherlock Holmes became more real to people than the author, Conan Doyle.

” The real inference [ of these works ] is that Sherlock really existed and that Conan Doyle never existed. If posterity only read these latter books it will certainly suppose them to be serious. It will imagine that Sherlock Holmes was a man ( pg. 106).”

-G.K Chesterton

The enchantment of Sherlock Holmes goes hand in hand with Tolkien’s definition and belief of Secondary Worlds. He believes that the author can make a secondary world that your mind can enter and once you enter it, you believe everything in that world ( pg.161).

” You therefore believe , while you are, as it were, inside”

Tolkien’s definition is a great explanation of why people treated the Sherlock stories the way they did.

Image result for the fall of man

Tolkien based his foundation of storytelling on this Christian belief

Christianity vs. Secularism- Rationality vs. Enchantment

Tolkien was very religious and used his Christian foundation as a source of enchantment in his secondary world. Sherlock Holmes was rational yet enchanting, however it did not have the spiritual aspect. Tolkien’s work and the Sherlock Holmes story had the perfect balance of enchantment and reality, however the only thing that separated the two works was Tolkien’s faith.

” he also believed that indeed- all stories were essentially True. Humans were ” sub- creators,” emulating God’s creative power in their fictions; stories inevitably expressed and furthered God’s purposes in the world ( pg. 162).”

The creativity aspect in the world of fantasy attracts everyone of us. The secondary world has to have an aspect of reality that we can relate to but also have an other worldly part that can make us forget about our problems in the primary world. Tolkien & Doyle did an excellent job of expressing this. Tolkien took it deeper when he stated that disenchantment started with the Fall ( In Christianity). When man fell, the world started knowing hardship; this explains why people want to be enchanted into a world that is better than the struggles of their current life.

How do ads enchant modernity

A more realistic practice of modern enchantment is advertisements. People get into stories and movies to enchant them from their everyday lives and they want that to continue when they are living their everyday lives. People are drawn to and enchanted by commercials because commercials sell a narrative that people want to buy.

A perfect way someone can be enchanted is when they are being convinced that they are going to be enchanted. Cinema Advertisements do a superb job in doing that.

Cinema advertising is one of the most effective platforms for distributing your film. It boasts a captive audience, heightened engagement and emotional response, high levels of brand association, and, of course, a substantial return on investment”

-Tinker Taylor

People want to be sold and enchanted into the world that they are about to experience. The cinema advertising or trailers briefly introduces the audience to the world and what they will be experiencing. It is up to the watcher to determine whether or not they want to engage in that world.

According to Tinker  Taylor, 78% of people in the UK are cinema goers

How Maps Help a Narrative

Introduction of Maps in a Narrative

Harry Potter, The Hunger Games, and Divergent have setting(s), like all narratives should. The characters go to multiple places, described by the author. When telling a story to someone, there is a setting that the listener is aware of. Imagine a storyteller orally telling a story about how their daughter got lost in Queens, New York. Most people in the United States have a knowledge of where New York is, so they can make sense of the story.  They have a mental picture of the setting when they are listening to the story. In the examples listed above, the author paints a picture, oftentimes, of secondary world surroundings. The characters often travel to places that we as humans have not physically experienced or have prior knowledge of. It is easier to relate to a story when we have been to the location of the story; or we are knowledgeable about the location in some capacity.

Since we do not have prior knowledge of secondary worlds, the author provides maps that will help us have knowledge about the locations of these worlds.  Through these maps, the reader can spatially make sense of the story. In The Hunger Games, there are 13 districts located in the nation of Panem.”Panem is a nation that was established during an unknown time period in a post-apocalyptic world. It is situated primarily in North America, and the Capitol is located in an area formerly known as the Rocky Mountains, as it states in the first book of The Hunger Games trilogy.” In the book,  Building Imaginary Worlds: the theory of subcreation, Wolf expressed similar sentiments when he said, “Maps relate a series of locations to each other, visually unifying them into a world. They provide a concrete image of a world, and fill in many of the gaps not covered in the story; gaps between locations, at the world’s edges, and places  not otherwise  mentioned or visited by the characters ( pg.156).”   Wolf went on to say that maps are the most basic devices used to provide structure to an imaginary world.

Places are affected and defined by what lies around them

Hogwarts is an example of a place that is affected by what lies around it. Hogwarts is located near an all wizard village. Battles have been fought on the castle in defense of it. This location is important to the story because it is a prestigious school of wizardry. The Hunger games is another example of this because each of the districts are known for something.


District 1: Luxury 

The jobs offered are goldsmiths, hair stylists, jewelers, furrier, perfumers, and vintners. This district is the richest because of the luxury items that are mined for the Capitol. These characteristics of the District also define the personalities of their inhabitants. They are known to be overconfident.


District 5: Power

This district generates power for the entire nation and has a dam. The jobs offered in this district are geologist, officer, equipment manager, system analyst, and maintenance.

The last example is…

District 11: Agriculture

This is one of the poorer districts because the citizens are not allowed to eat the food that they grow for the Capitol. The inhabitants of this district have dark skin, presumably African American.

Maps are an important part of Narrative Threads

” Conversely, as secondary world infrastructures ( or maps) grow, so does narratives ( pg. 198)”.

Wolf goes on to say that “Maps can be used to imply narratives; for example the presence of ruins suggest places that were built and then destroyed  or fell into disuse… as infrastructures are pieced together, world history emerges, as well as traditional storylines  from which future narratives set in the same world may grow. ”  The different locations within the story not only tell a hidden narrative but it aids in the narrative when important things happen in the locations, for example deaths, battles, confrontations etc.

A narrative thread is a chain of events that happens within a narrative. Events usually take place in a certain location in a story ( pg. 199). The chain of events can happen in different map locations within the story. These locations make up the story and its importance. In Hunger Games, the characters are placed in the forest, an important event that happened in the story was Rue’s death. This death was publicized to all who were watching at the Capitol. Although the death happened in one location, it affected her family as well as the other people who were watching from her district.  Another example of this is when Tris Prior ( from Divergent) visits her brother Caleb Prior. Tris has joined the Dauntless Faction and Caleb has joined the Erudite. When you join these factions, you leave your family forever. Tris illegally visited her brother at the faction, which proved that there was something special about her. She could not be easily controlled. These factions are far away from each other and her journey to her brother was a risky one.


Maps relate the audience to the story. The maps also relate the locations to each other, and defines these locations. The locations can also define the character’s purpose for being there, and personality traits of the character. Maps can also be used to imply narratives.

Case Study on Slow-motion Tragedy for American Workers

The Article, Slow- motion tragedy for American workers is a moving case study about how workers in construction sites are exposed with dusts and micro particles that damage their lungs. This story does an excellent job of incorporating various storytelling elements that was taught in integrated media and storytelling. The elements that the story had was lists, a video, chunking, pictures, visual inter actives, charts, block quotes, quotes, social media friendly, captioned pictures, story updates, links,  headings, subheadings, chunking, picture collages, timelines, slideshows, audience participation, emotional appeal, commentary and plenty of expert opinion and data. The only fault I find with this article is that it is a tad long and it did not use maps. In this essay I will explain how this story did perfectly incorporated all of these story elements.

Informative Subheadings

Before you tell a story you have to know your audience. Your story has to have a purpose. Why do you want to tell the story to the audience? Why should the audience care? The subheading of this case study adequately answers these questions. According to Aerogramme Writing Studio’s 50 narrative devices for non-fiction storytellers, you have to always capture your story in a sentence or two max.


Know Your Audience

I believe that the target audience are everyday people as well as the people affected from silicosis, the disease various construction workers get for inhaling dusts and particles. The audience is also OSHA, doctors, the family and friends of the people suffering with this disease, the white house ( President Obama was quoted), various lawmakers and courts, as well as the employers of these construction workers.  The stories purpose is to state how these workers were not protected from these health hazards, as well as state how the dust exposure affects these workers and lead to many diseases. This is an ongoing story about how what actions or lack thereof are affecting these people’s lives.

2016-12-05 (2).png

50 Narrative Devices

There are rules for storytelling of all kinds and this story did a phenomenal job of incorporating those rules.  One of the rules is to tell the truth. This case study told the truth about big organizations that are supposed to be trusted. One of the other advices from Aerogramme writer’s studio is to think about the audience’s emotions. This story did an excellent job of that by telling the story of one man who suffered from the lung disease due to his job. Other characters were connected to him to tell his story, such as the role OSHA and his doctors played. Other people’s stories that suffered similar or worse fate was also told. The end of the case study is the perfect example of utilizing emotional appeal because it told of a young man who suffered the lung disease and in his last days he coughed up blood and vomited, when he passed on his mother would wake up from her sleep and remember that her once ailing son was no longer with her. This emotional appeal helps reiterate the cause that better preventative measures need to be provided to these construction workers.

This case study revealed the conflict in this story such as OSHA and the construction sites not providing enough protection for the workers. This story also showed that the statistics of these people dyng were not just numbers, they were people like you and me. This was depicted by showing their pictures ( picture collage) and telling their stories or allowing us to view their stories on a separate link.

The study had me hooked to finding out what happened next because all of the information was not told at once, I had to keep reading to find out exactly what disease the character suffered and how him and people like him were coping with the disease.


The case study is broken up into four parts by informative headings that state what the paragraphs are going to talk about.

Pictures and Captions


Every article should have visual aid of some sort. As soon as you open the case study, you see a picture of construction workers and one of them is in a hospital gown and has an IV bag attached to him. Without even reading the case study, the audience knows or has a clue about what they are about to read. They gain a more deeper insight when they connect that picture to the title and subheading of the case study. The authors utilized captions so that the reader knew exactly how the picture related to the story or at least knew where the picture was from.  The pictures in the story were at relevant places. If the case study was talking about what the President of OSHA said, his picture with a direct quote of what he said would be off to the side with a caption. Having pictures are a huge asset to any story because the reader can better picture the characters of the story and better imagine what the story is about.


According to Kivi’s NonProfit Communications Blog, chunking is breaking down a long article into smaller, manageable , more easily understood blocks of text. For instance, a 2,000 word article can be broken up into 600-700 blocks of texts. This story utilizes this well because the paragraphs were broken down in 100-200 blocks of texts. There were even a break between paragraphs where there was only one sentence and then the next paragraph continued.


This story was interesting but long and I appreciate how there was a list to break down the content at some point in the middle of the article.



This case study was intertwined with numerous other stories so there were links to reference as well as back up what was being said. The lists broke down OSHA’s chemical limit as well as the Center for Public Integrity’s findings.

Timeline and Video

There was a timeline that explained the main character’s story by time frame and it incorporated the full story. There was also a video that explained how dangerous his job was.



Data was extremely vital in this story because it talks about how many people died of these diseases in the work place, the legal chemical exposure limits, and the life expectancy of the victims. These important data and statistics make the story credible.  Data is important in a story because it tells a story through engaging info graphs. According to the data journalism handbook, data can be used to create deeper insights on what is happening around the world and how it affects us. In this story the data further impacted the story by explaining exactly how many millions of people were dying. There was also a lot of expert opinion that was supported by the data  Data is also important to use because you cannot argue with it.


Audience Participation Interactives and Charts

Throughout the case story, it was made known that audience participation is welcome because there are social media buttons by the authors names as well as key findings, meaning you can talk to the authors as well as talk about what they wrote. There were also interactives about some data that was discovered. When something scientific was being discussed, there were charts off to the side that explained them. The reader could also comment on the case study at the bottom.

The fault that I had with this case study is that it was long. It was interesting and informational but it could have been broken down into a series. There could have also been a map to tell where in the United States these victims suffered, perhaps where the headquarters of OSHA is located and exactly where the main character is from. That would have given better insight and personalized the story. Overall this case study was well written and had a lot of storytelling elements that I learned in class

The 2nd Presidential Debate

This Presidential Debate is indeed different from the others, not only because of the candidates, but because of the layout. This debate happened at Washington University and the atmosphere was nurturing towards the needs of the students and citizens present. However, the candidates were extremely defensive towards each other throughout the debate.There is citizen participation in this debate and they are formally introduced.

Like Anderson Cooper said, ” This is a townhall meeting”, the atmosphere was very welcoming and everybody in the audience seemed eager for answers. The first question was from a teacher Patrice Broth that asked ” do you feel that you are modeling appropriate and positive behavior for today’s youth”. Hillary Clinton responded with a speech. She basically said ” we are going to respect one another, lift each other up, we are going to be looking for ways to celebrate our diversity.” Trump answered the same question by saying that he agrees with Hillary, then continued his speech.

Both candidates danced around the question but Hillary indirectly answered it. Anderson Cooper repeated the first question to lead to his second question about the released tapes of Donald Trump saying inappropriate things about women. He answered by saying that it was just locker room talk, then he went on to talk about Isis, making America safe again, and making America great again. Hillary answered the same question that Anderson posed towards Trump by saying, ” He is not fit to be president and commander and chief.” She then pointed out some derogatory comments that has been said in his campaign then used that to further explain her campaign.

Trump then wanted to rebut what Clinton said, then interrupted the questioner when she wanted to move on to the online questions. The online question was ” Trump said the campaign has changed him, when did that happen?” Trump answered that question by continuing to say that it was locker room talk and that he is not proud of what he said. ” That was locker room talk,  I am not proud of it, I am a person who has great respect for people, for my family, I am definitely not proud of it.” Hillary answered that question by saying  that the video is a direct representation of who he is, and that he does not apologize for the things he says.

” He never apologizes for anything to anyone, he never apologized to Mr. and Ms. Kahn, the goldstar family whose son Captain Kahn died in the line of duty in Iraq, and Donald insulted and attacked them for weeks over their religion. He never apologized to the distinguished federal judge who was born in Indiana, but Donald said he couldn’t be trusted to be a judge because his parents were [ quote Mexican].He never apologized to the reporter he mimicked and mocked and our children were watching.”- Hillary Clinton

The next questions were about the email scandal that Hillary was involved in. Trump and Clinton went back and forth about it with Clinton defending herself. That was the tone for the rest of the debate.

Clinton and Trump were throwing jabs at each other while defending themselves and their campaigns. The audience were eager for answers and it is uncertain whether they got the answers that they needed.

The final voting day is November 8th. America will then decide who is fit to be the President of the United States.






Viewing art within the Canton/ Reinhardt Community

Art cannot only be enjoyed at Reinhardt, but the community that helps shape Reinhardt as well. I will list three places in Canton where art can be enjoyed

1.The Canton Festival of Art

This is presented by the Cherokee, hosts an annual art festival in Canton, Georgia.There are awards for the best art shows. Live entertainment as well as entertainment for the children are offered.


2. Canton Arts Academy

The Canton Arts Academy offers art, digital art and music classes. If you’re interested in learning as well as appreciating art, you can give this place a visit.

3. The Art Barn 

This farm specializes in ” art, animals, and agriculture” for the children. Children get to see the animals, create art and be themselves.

Charts for storytelling

The population of Canton doubled over the past twenty years. Due to this increase, new buildings have been built such as an office rental space and an old folks home in Waleska. The population of Georgia in general has increased because of the economic opportunities that Georgia has to offer.

This means that the number of visitors of the Funk Heritage Museum has increased. The population at Reinhardt University has increased as well. The expansion of programs are currently taking place, along with the expansion of the school.